BioZ probiotics contain fast growing, stable, safe organisms capable of producing several enzymes in shrimp pond ecosystem. These organisms efficiently digest complex organic molecules like protein, fat, carbohydrates etc with the help of enzymes like protease, lipase, amylase, Cellulase, chitinase, Xylanase etc. produced during the growth cycle. Therefore, BioZ probiotics can reduce organic bottom sludge and prevent undesirable microbes from growing on the pond ecosystem. BioZ probiotics produce antimicrobial compounds like antibiotic and other metabolites capable of inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria like Vibrio, Salmonella and Coliforms. Vibrio has been known to cause EMS in shrimp with enormous economic loss. Bacteria in BioZ probiotics adapt efficiently in the digestive tract of shrimp and boost the immune system. Some of the protective mechanisms responsible for these changes include expulsion of pathogens out of the digestive tract, macrophage elicitation, and competitive depletion of essential nutrients. The advantages of applying BioZ probiotics can be summarized as follows:1. Removal of organic bottom sludge and eliminate ammonia, NO2, NO3, H2S. 2. Faster growth and production of several extracellular enzymes during growth 3. Production of antimicrobial compounds and inhibit growth of undesirable organisms. 4. Enhance immunity, disease resistance and improve survival and productivity 5.Higher benefits when used as feed additive for increased performance 6. BioZ probiotics are effective in hatchery, growout cycle, and for pond preparation. 7. Less water exchange, better biosecurity and food safety for the customers. 8. BioZ probiotics promote sustainable aquaculture - shrimp farming.
Probiotics are live microorganisms capable of growing in shrimp ponds and make several beneficial changes in water and soil. They produce variety of enzymes which digest organic bottom sludge steadily. They use the digested sludge as nutrients for their grow in shrimp ponds and keep the water healthy. They also reduce the formation of harmful products like ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and H2S. BioZ probiotics produce antimicrobial compounds to inhibit pathogens from growing in pond water and prevent diseases. The microorganisms also grow in the shrimp gut and prevent pathogens growing in the same gastrointestinal region. Probiotics are important to support biosecurity, food safety and maintain healthy water for shrimp to grow faster without diseases. Use of probiotics is a requirement in healthy modern shrimp farming without antibiotics. In summary, probiotics can be used in all areas of shrimp farming from hatchery, raceways, growout ponds, pond preparation after harvest and treatment of discharge water holding tanks and reservoirs.
Algae are photosynthetic organisms present in fresh and salt water. They synthesize their own food utilizing sun light, nitrogen and phosphorus from pond water. They do not require a carbon source which they get it from C02 from air. The density of algae increases steadily in shrimp pond water due to higher nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. Most of these nitrogen ( protein, NH3, NO2,NO3 ) is coming from high protein feeds, organic bottom sludge, fecal materials, excess feeds, dead algae and other planktons. This high density of algal growth is known as algae bloom which is not good for shrimp production. Algae bloom is also a sign of imbalance in the pond ecosystem and indication of not following best farming practices.
Algae bloom may create unsteady conditions and crises including algae crash and sudden demand for BOD and consequent mortality of shrimp. Algae can crash during cloudy days, rainy days, when the water is cloudy resulting in sudden death of algal population with sudden demand for high BOD. Algae can produce oxygen during sunny days while they absorb oxygen like shrimp from pond water during night hours. As a result, during night hours it is important to add mechanical aeration especially in intensive farming to prevent sudden dissolved oxygen depletion and mortality. Algal crash is a difficult condition to handle. It is recommended to reduce feeding, increase mechanical aeration and exchange bottom organic sludge to improve the health of the pond ecosystem.
Progressive shrimp farming promote a heterotrophic ecosystem with as little algae as possible.
Excess of nitrogen and phosphorus in pond water attract algae leading to bloom. The first step is to reduce organic bottom sludge < 4.0 % during pond preparation. The organic sludge is rich in nitrogenous compounds from fecal matter and excess feeds from the previous growout cycle. Conventional method of drying out the top soil and removing top layers is not reliable. Therefore, it is recommended that just 3-4 days before PL introduction for the next cycle, fill the pond to half and add a probiotic with aeration for 3-4 days. The microbes and enzymes in the probiotics digest the organic wastes and eliminate excess of nitrogen from pond. This will reduce the population of undesirable microorganisms and transform your pond into healthy ecosystem. Measure the concentration of NH3, NO2,NO3 to insure safe levels. Top up the pond water level and introduce healthy PL from a reliable source.
During the growout cycle care must be taken not to feed in excess which will increase the bottom sludge and nitrogen level to attract and promote algal bloom. Another important step is to maintain a C:N ratio in the range of 20: 1. This means that addition of carbon source ( molasses, HFCS, dextrose, bananas, rice bran etc. ) is in the right direction with mechanical aeration to actively promote heterotrophic bacterial population to utilize all the nitrogen and deplete it. Low nitrogen in pond water means less algae are attracted. This is important when high protein feed is applied and also when quality of protein is nutritionally of poor quality ( poor digestibility & absorption by shrimp population ) and wasted. It is significant to monitor the sacchi disc number and turbidity routinely along with NH3 AND NO2 concentration. Another way to monitor optimum feeding efficiency is to check the FCR regularly and prevent wastes. Excess feed and wasted feed are prelude to algae bloom and with severe economic consequences.
Biofloc is a unique ecosystem of rich and potent suspended particles which are conglomerates of microbes, algae, protozoa and others with detritus. They are light, normally suspended in water with a size of 0.1- 0.4 mm. Biofloc is a rich source of high quality protein from bacteria and others known as single cell protein ( SCP ). Biofloc technology is prominent currently because of intensive farming with zero or minimal water exchange. However, the organic residues accumulating in the pond under such conditions are recycled by microbial processes rather than conventional high water exchange or use of external bio filter. In essence, the microbial activities within these ponds act as an efficient water quality treatment system producing abundance of microbial biomass protein serve as a feed additive. It is roughly estimated that biofloc can replace up to 25-30 % of feed daily and P. vannamei like to feed on this microbial soup. Biofloc Technology ( BFT ) has many advantages: save precious water, reduce cost, eliminate water discharge and pollution, prevent spread of diseases, major step in biosecurity, food safety, sustainability and prevent algae bloom. It requires the selection of heterotrophic bacteria that can grow steadily and digest the organic matter to produce biomass and eliminate NH3, NO2, NO3 and H2S. These bacteria grow efficiently during rainy and cloudy season, during day and night and utilize carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus to keep the pond ecosystem healthy and sustainable. A good probiotic is highly recommended to support biofloc production.
"Biosecurity is defined as the practice of exclusion of specific pathogens from cultured aquatic stocks in broodstock facilities, hatcheries and farms, or from entire regions or countries for the purpose of disease prevention " ( Lightener, 2003 ). There are many sources of entry by these viral and bacterial pathogens into the shrimp pond ecosystem.
The spread of diseases is rather easy in an open system. To control water quality, farmers exchange water intensively and replace it with fresh water pumped back from the same estuary or similar source creating a vicious cycle. Water exchange is the greatest single source of pathogens, be it virus or bacteria or disease vectors in aquaculture shrimp farming. Under such conditions, a disease from one pond would quickly spread to the neighboring area or to the same region or a country. Diseases like WSSV, EMS or APHND spread steadily from one country to several countries in a short period of time. The practice of biofloc technology is one of the practical means of growing shrimp in a biosecure condition without water exchange or using a recirculation reservoir or using filtered water or use water treated with probiotics. Water is pumped from the ocean into a reservoir and treated with probiotics and then transferred to the production ponds.
Water drained out of production ponds is pumped to sedimentation reservoir, treated with probiotics and later used to refill the ponds as needed. Such strict avoidance of pathogens and their sources enable operations to complete productive cycles without outbreak of diseases. Another positive aspect of treating with probiotic is the effect on shrimp immune system. Probiotic bacteria and the biofloc organisms provide stimulation of the non-specific immune system of shrimp and raise the immune potential to resist infections. Also the probiotic bacteria adapt quickly in the shrimp gut and hepatopancreas, grow and dominate the system and evict slow growing pathogens. Such competitive expulsion is an important strategy to prevent diseases like EMS/AHPND and other Vibrio infections proactively if probiotics become integral part of BAP. Bacteria in probiotics keep the organic sludge reduced, keep the water healthy and free from NH3,NO2,NO3 etc. When biosecurity is provided, shrimp grow faster, feed more, excellent FCR and a stable pond system without stress. Biosecurity is the key to productivity and sustainability.